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Extensive works that follow a linear pathway through the Economy of Emotion we trade in. Asking questions about expression, automation, and artificial intelligence – where do the boundaries lie? Where does commerical experience end and the human experience begin?

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Work No.131: Ciracade (2018) – Mild steel, LED strip, Medium Density Fibre Board, perspex, injection moulded polyurethane, 3x Arduino Uno boards, servos, black ink, Chinese Wolf hair brushes. 130 x 130 x 26cm.  Exhibition view – Lethaby Gallery, Granary Square, London.

*Awarded the David Ward International Award for Innovation.


Ciracade is an analogous structure formed allegorically, preserving the principles of a self-contained organisation that governs light and mobility, providing a schema for the automation and commodification of emotion.

Mirroring Bourriaud's concerns, written in 'The Exform', that the 'proletariat' may be becoming disassociated. Here, Ciracade attempts to form a microcosm of industry, exhibiting a mechanised interpretation of Schadenfreude ('malicious joy' at the expense of another), in lieu of an under-class driven labour system purposed exclusively for capital gain. 

The peripheral light ring is automated  by a smartphone app, changing to affect the internal-body clock of viewing parties. This unspoken procedural system invites discourse around appointed capitalist frameworks whose purpose is to maintain enterprise at any cost.


Work No.144: Okunoin I (2018) - Ink on 310gsm Hahnemuhle German Etching paper. 43.18 x 30.48 cm (17x12inch). Edition of 75.


Work No.143: Zero-Sen (2018) - diptych - Ink on 310gsm Hahnemuhle German Etching paper. 83.82 x 119.38 cm (33 x 47 inch). Edition of 15. 


Work No.142: Rinia (2018) - Ink on 310gsm Hahnemuhle German Etching paper. 30.48 x 43.18 cm (12x17inch). Edition of 100.


Work No.141: Raifusaikuru (2018) - Ink on 310gsm Hahnemuhle German Etching paper. 43.18 x 30.48 cm (17x12inch). Edition of 10


Work No.141: Terrestrial (2018) - Ink on 310gsm Hahnemuhle German Etching paper. 43.18 x 30.48 cm (17x12inch). Edition of 75.


Work No.140: The Howitzer (2018) - Ink on 310gsm Hahnemuhle German Etching paper. 43.18 x 30.48 cm (17x12inch). Edition of 50.


Work No.139: Wave Radiant (2018) - Ink on 310gsm Hahnemuhle German Etching paper. (A3) 30.48 x 43.18 cm (12x17inch) . Edition of 75.


Work No.138: You Alone Will Have The Stars As No One Else Will Have Them (2018) - Motion Painting, 1080 X 1920px, 4 min loop.


Work No.137: The Land Of Tears (2018) - Motion Painting, 1080 X 1920px, 30 sec loop.


Work No.136: Block Universe (2018) - Hessian sandbags, rope, metronomes, bone ornament, sand. Exhibition view – Mayfair Fringe - Mayfair, London.

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Work No.134 + 135: Satre Says Relax (2018) - Oil on Canvas. 91 x 122cm / 35.82 x 48.03in. Exhibition view – (H)AKT: Art & Activism - Tanner Street, Bermondsey, London.


Work No.133: CondemNation (2018) - LED Digital display. 101.6 x 20.32cm. Exhibition view – (H)AKT: Art & Activism - Tanner Street, Bermondsey, London.


Sartre Says... this is absurd!

Lack of recognition given by society toward authentic expression is represented in CondemNation. Using a child’s game to delineate and undermine absurdity contained within, further deflecting Satre’s famous statement on how man is condemned to his own freedom (Satre, 1946), into a satyrised statement of expression.


Absurdity and lack of recognition given toward authentic expression is best represented in ‘Shagpile of Poo’. Complicit in these socialogical exchanges of passive affection, viewers are required to physically trample the work underfoot, before learning what it is they are neglecting.

Late capitalism is like your love life: it looks a lot less bleak through an Instagram filter. The slow collapse of the social contract is the backdrop for a modern mania...The more frightening the economic outlook and the more floodwaters rise, the more the public conversation is turning toward individual fulfilment as if in a desperate attempt to make us feel like we still have some control over our lives. ...Lifestyle bloggers insist to hundreds of thousands of followers that freedom looks like a white woman practicing yoga alone on a beach. (Penny, 2016)

– Penny, L. (2016) Life-Hacks of the Poor and Aimless. Online: - Accessed: 5th April 2018


Work No.130: Phyllotaxis II.V Meisō (2018), Monograph – Ink on Recycled Rag Paper, Japanese binding. Unique edition. 50 pages. 15 x 21 x 8 cm.


This monograph represents a 50 page chronical of an evolution in the drawing process detailed throughout the Phyllotaxis work.

Descartes deduces, space between subjective experience and a peripheral world, where perceiving and merely seeming to perceive, are at odds (Gottlieb, 2016). His thoughts become those of a place separate to himself, although aware, there is no fundamental governance.

– Gottlieb, A. (2016) The Dream of Enlightenment – The Rise of Modern Philosophy, New York: Penguin Books


Work No.129: Tenebrous (2018) – Artist's own Toric silicone lens, black ink. 1.4 x 1.4 x 0.8 cm. Edition of 5.


…every sensory experience I have ever thought I was having while awake I can also think of myself sometimes having while asleep… I did not see why I should be any more inclined to believe this of what I think I perceive while awake. (Descartes, 1984: 53)

– Descartes, R. (1984) The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, Bath: University of Cambridge Press


Work No.128: Slightly Smiling Face, Disappointed Face, Face Without Mouth - triptych (2018) – Polyethylene peg boards. 21 x 31 x 1 cm. 


Fear leads to flight, hate to rage and attack. Joy produces smiles and dancing or leaping about. Despair produces withdrawal and despondent demenaour. ...emotion is a critical component of biological intelligence, necessary for evaluating sensory input, selecting goals, directing behaviour, and controlling learning. This is not to suggest that intelligent machines can, or should, be endowed with emotions. However they must have the capacity to make value judgements. Without this capacity, machines can never be intelligent or autonomous. (Leondes, 1992: 243)

– Leondes, C.T. (1992) Manufacturing and Automation Systems: Techniques and Technologies, London: Academic Press Inc.


Work No.124: Phyllotaxis II.I Karōshi (2018) – Ink on paper. 33 x 15 x 15cm.


This approach to drawing offers an act of pure psychic automatism... the dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason and outside all moral or aesthetic concerns (Breton, 1969) - freedom personified. They convey a lot about a person, more than any prevailing dialect could offer. By restricting the use of sight the artist separates cognition from awareness. They are authentically authored, time specific, and uniquely expressive. Each piece forms a momentary gestural introspection in both demeanour and temperament.

Phyllotaxis II.I Karōshi sees this process of spatial drawing evolve into consideration for space as light. These drawings are curled into translucent lanterns where the white space left is projected outwards via the internal emitting light.


Work No.123: OVERSP!LL (2018) – Perspex, Alcohol, Linen Thread. 18.5 x 12.5 x 4 cm
*Exhibition view, Overpr!nt (2018) La Louvière, Belgium.


No human relation is devoid of power, however, language is a conduit for realising a new potential.

You surely cannot forget that it is on the basis of that language with its slow genesis, and the obscure development that has brought it to its present state, that we can speak of other discourses in terms of structures; it is that language which has given us the possibility and the right to do so; it forms the blind spot on the basis of which things around us are arranged as we see them today. (Foucault, 1972: 220)

– Foucault, M. (2002) Archaeology of Knowledge, London: Routledge.


Work No.121: Phyllotaxis I.II (2018), Ink on Recycled Cotton Rag Paper, 31 x 37cm.